Urban landfill leachate are highly contaminated wastewater, usually characterised by high ammonium concentrations and low biodegradable organic matter content. Treating leachate through conventional nitrification-denitrification processes is expensive due to its high oxygen demand and the requirement of a supplementary external carbon source. In recent years, the feasibility of treating such streams with a low C:N ratio by a combined partial nitritation-anammox process has been demonstrated. This thesis deals with the treatment of landfill leachate by a partial nitritation-SBR, as a preparative step for an anammox reactor. The results of the study have demonstrated the feasibility of this technology for the treatment of landfill leachate. The work evolved from initial lab-scale studies, where the process was first tested, to a successful long-term experiment at pilot-scale. In addition, the thesis also includes the development, calibration and validation of a mathematical model of the process, aiming at increasing process knowledge.