Electroactive microorganisms can exchange electrons with other cells or conductive interfaces in their extracellular environment. This property opens the way to a broad range of practical biotechnological applications, from manufacturing sustainable chemicals via electrosynthesis, to bioenergy, bioelectronics or improved, low-energy demanding wastewater treatments. Besides, electroactive microorganisms play key roles in environmental bioremediation, significantly impacting process efficiencies. This review highlights our present knowledge on microbial interactions promoting the communication between electroactive microorganisms in a biofilm on an electrode in bioelectrochemical systems (BES). Furthermore, the immediate knowledge gaps that must be closed to develop novel technologies will also be acknowledged.