This doctoral thesis deals with the synthesis of two biofuels (bioethanol and biobuthanol) by bacteria. Concretely, the thesis is focused on a group of bacteria able to grow in a simple substrate such as synthesis gas or syngas. Syngas is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide obtained through the gasification of urban and forestry wastes. The use of syngas as a substrate requires a good knowledge of bacterial metabolism to successfully control acid production and promote alcohol synthesis. To acquire this knowledge, the researcher carried out a set of experiments at lab scale, always using syngas. Among the most significant results, there is the relevance of both the temperature and the bacteria state at the start of the experiments. Additionally, new insights into bacterial metabolism which are applicable at industrial scale were gathered.