This thesis results from the collaborative projects between the LEQUIA-UdG group and Cespa (a company in charge of several landfill sites in Spain). The aim of the work was the development of a suitable alternative treatment for nitrogen removal from mature landfill leachates. The thesis presents the application of the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation process) process to treat ammonium rich leachates as the second step of the PANAMMOX® process. The work deals with preliminary studies about the characteristics of the anammox process in a SBR, with special focus on the response of the biomass to nitrite exposure. The application of the anammox process with leachate was first studied in a lab-scale reactor, to test the effect of the leachate matrix on anammox biomass and its progressive adaptation. Finally, a start-up strategy is developed and applied for the successful start-up of a 400L anammox SBR in less than 6 months.