This study evaluates the treatment of vegetable oil industry wastewater using dual-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) via modification and surface area expansion of cost-effective electrodes. The modified electrodes were applied as both the anode and cathode to investigate their treatment capacity and electrochemical performance. Carbon paper anodes were modified using TiO2-HX@MWCNT-COOH-Al2O3 composite. Activated carbon powders originating from Bambuseae were used as the low-cost catalyst for the carbon felt cathode. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) techniques. The electrochemical properties of the MFCs were investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). RESULTS: The highest average removal efficiencies of COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand), NH4+ (ammonium), NH3− (nitrate), TSS (total suspended solids), and VSS (volatile suspended solids) were 94 ± 3% (33 kgCODrem/m3.d), 89 ± 1% (12 kgBODrem/m3.d), 87 ± 1% (0.24 kgNH4+-Nrem/m3.d), 74 ± 3% (0.05 kgNO3−-N/m3.d), 79 ± 2% (1 kgCODrem/m3.d), and 65 ± 3% (0.73 kgCODrem/m3.d), respectively. The highest average power density of 30 ± 5 W/m3 was obtained when treating vegetable oil industry wastewater. The highest average coulombic efficiency (CE) of 85 ± 3% and energy efficiency (EE) of 35 ± 2% were achieved. The EIS results showed that the high conductivity and large unique surface area significantly enhanced the charge transfer efficiency on the electrode surface. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the TiO2-HX@MWCNT-COOH-Al2O3 composite can be used to reinforce the performance of MFCs.