Electrified biotrickling filters represent sustainable microbial electrochemical technology for treating organic carbon-deficient ammonium-contaminated waters. However, information on the microbiome of the conductive granule bed cathode remains inexistent. For uncovering this black box and for identifying key process parameters, minimally invasive sampling units were introduced, allowing for the extraction of granules from different reactor layers during reactor operation. Sampled granules were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry and molecular biological tools. Two main redox sites [−288 ± 18 mV and −206 ± 21 mV vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE)] related to bioelectrochemical denitrification were identified, exhibiting high activity in a broad pH range (pH 6–10). A genome-centric analysis revealed a complex nitrogen food web and the presence of typical denitrifiers like Pseudomonas nitroreducens and Paracoccus versutus with none of these species being identified as electroactive microorganism so far. These are the first results to provide insights into microbial structure-function relationships within electrified biotrickling filters and underline the robustness and application potential of bioelectrochemical denitrification for environmental remediation.