Volatile silicon compounds present in the biogas of anaerobic digesters can cause severe problems in the energy recovery systems, inducing costly damages. Herein, the microbial community of a lab-scale biotrickling filter (BTF) was studied while testing its biodegradation capacity on octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), in the presence of toluene, limonene and hexane. The reactor performance was tested at different empty bed residence times (EBRT) and packing materials. Community structure was analysed by bar-coded amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial diversity and richness were higher in the inoculum and progressively decreased during BTF operation (Simpson's diversity index changing from 0.98–0.90 and Richness from 900 to 200 OTUs). Minimum diversity was found when reactor was operated at relatively low EBRT (7.3 min) using a multicomponent feed. The core community was composed of 36 OTUs (accounting for 55% of total sequences). Packing material played a key role in the community structure. Betaproteobacteriales were dominant in the presence of lava rock and were partially substituted by Corynebacteriales and Rhizobiales when activated carbon was added to the BTF. Despite these changes, a stable and resilient core microbiome was selected defining a set of potentially degrading bacteria for siloxane bioremoval as a complementary alternative to non-regenerative adsorption onto activated carbon.